Leita í fréttum mbl.is
Embla

Prófessor doktor Ţorvaldur enn

á ferđ međ söguskýringar sínar um stjórnarskrárbulliđ frá 2012.

Hann heldur ţví fram í Fréttablađinu í dag ađ 67 % kjósenda hafi stutt stjórnarskrárdrögin hans.

Auglýstar niđurstöđur atkvćđagreiđslunnar voru svo:

" Auglýsing um niđurstöđur ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslunnar 20. október 2012

30.10.2012

Landskjörstjórn hefur tilkynnt innanríkisráđuneytinu um niđurstöđur ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslunnar 20. október 2012 um tillögur stjórnlagaráđs ađ frumvarpi til stjórnarskipunarlaga og tiltekin álitaefni ţeim tengd sem lýst var á fundi landskjörstjórnar 29. október 2012. Auglýsing ráđuneytisins um niđurstöđurnar er svofelld:

Međ vísan til 1. mgr. 10. gr. laga um framkvćmd ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslna nr. 91/2010 hefur landskjörstjórn tilkynnt innanríkisráđuneytinu um niđurstöđur ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslunnar 20. október 2012 um tillögur stjórnlagaráđs ađ frumvarpi til stjórnarskipunarlaga og tiltekin álitaefni ţeim tengd sem lýst var á fundi landskjörstjórnar 29. október 2012. Engar kćrur bárust um ólögmćti atkvćđagreiđslunnar. Ađ teknu tilliti til niđurstöđu landskjörstjórnar um ágreiningsatkvćđi sem komu til úrskurđar hennar og endanlegra skýrslna yfirkjörstjórna varđ niđurstađan eftirfarandi:

Kjósendur á kjörskrá

236.911

Gild atkvćđi

114.570

Ógild atkvćđi

1.499

ţar af auđir

661

ţar af ađrir ógildir

838

 Gild atkvćđi skiptust ţannig eftir ţví hvernig kjósendur svöruđu einstökum spurningum:

  1. Vilt ţú ađ tillögur stjórnlagaráđs verđi lagđar til grundvallar frumvarpi ađ nýrri stjórnarskrá?

Já, ég vil ađ tillögur stjórnlagaráđs verđi lagđar til grundvallar frumvarpi ađ nýrri stjórnarskrá.

       73.509

Nei, ég vil ekki ađ tillögur stjórnlagaráđs verđi lagđar til grundvallar frumvarpi ađ nýrri stjórnarskrá.

       36.302

  1. Vilt ţú ađ í nýrri stjórnarskrá verđi náttúruauđlindir sem ekki eru í einkaeigu lýstar ţjóđareign?

    84.760

Nei   17.470

  1. Vilt ţú ađ í nýrri stjórnarskrá verđi ákvćđi um ţjóđkirkju á Íslandi?

    58.455

Nei   43.914

  1. Vilt ţú ađ í nýrri stjórnarskrá verđi persónukjör í kosningum til Alţingis heimilađ í meira mćli en nú er?         

     78.451

Nei    21.660

  1. Vilt ţú ađ í nýrri stjórnarskrá verđi ákvćđi um ađ atkvćđi kjósenda alls stađar ađ af landinu vegi jafnt?

     66.653

Nei    33.590

  1. Vilt ţú ađ í nýrri stjórnarskrá verđi ákvćđi um ađ tiltekiđ hlutfall kosningarbćrra manna geti krafist ţess ađ mál fari í ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslu?

     72.633

Nei    26.440

Auglýst međ vísan til 2. mgr. 10. gr. laga um framkvćmd ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslna nr. 91/2010.

Innanríkisráđuneytinu 30. október 2012"

 

Samkvćmt stćrđfrćđi prófessorsins verđur 31 % fylgi ţeirra viđ drögin sem kusu ađ 67% kjósenda. Allir sem reikna öđruvísi eru sannir ađ ţrefaldri lygi ađ dómi Ţorvaldar.

Ţeir sem geta lesiđ eindreginn ţjóđarvilja út úr ţessari hlálegu atkvćđagreiđslu sem minnihluti kjósenda sá ástćđu til ađ taka ţátt i, hljóta ađ vera á öđru plani en venjulegt fólk.

Finnst einhverjum virkilega ađ rökrćn ástćđa sé til ţess ađ kasta stjórnarskrá lýđeldisins Íslands sem var samţykkt međ nćrri öllu greiddum atkvćđum 1944 og hefur dugađ ţokkalega til ţessa dags út fyrir ţann blekvađal sem stjórnarskrárdrög Ţorvaldar eru?

Áreiđanlega er ţađ minnihluti íslenskra kjósenda sem hefur hugmynd um ţađ hvađ Ţorvaldur er ađ tala um eđa hefur lesiđ textann í ţaula og boriđ saman viđ núverandi stjórnarskrá. Enda haf drögin veriđ talin af glöggu fólki vera lćgst samnefnari sem hćgt var ađ fá frá hinum ósamstćđa stjórnlagahópi sem samdi plaggiđ.  

Textinn er til viđbótar fullur af mótsögnum og hrođvirknislegur. Útilokađ er ađ Alţingi geti komist ađ niđurstöđu um ađ búa til nýja stjórnarskrá á grundvelli ţessarar ritgerđar Ţorvaldar, sem óvíst er ađ vćri tekin gild í Gaggó Vest, hvađ ţá í viđskiptadeild H.Í., hvađ ţá inni á Alţingi, vegna ţess hversu óvönduđ hún er.

Grein og kröfugerđ prófessors doktor Ţorvaldar í ţetta sinn sem önnur er ţví út í hött og talnaturnar hans ekki traustari en áđur. Nema nú er skilgreindur lygarahópur hans útvíkkađur um allan helming og nćr nú eiginlega til alls landsins og miđanna, forsetans fyrrverandi og annarra stórmenna sem ađ málinu hafa komiđ.

Merkilegt hvađ 365 miđlar endast til ađ borga fyrir ađ hrćra ţessa steypu ár eftir ár nú brátt 5 árum eftir ađ stjórnarskrárdellan hertók kratann prófessor doktor Ţorvald Gylfason.

 


« Síđasta fćrsla | Nćsta fćrsla »

Athugasemdir

1 Smámynd: Ómar Ragnarsson

Hvergi í heiminum eru ţeir, sem sitja heima, taldir međ ţegar úrslitin eru fundin út. 

Ef ţessi ađferđ ţín hefđi veriđ notuđ í Bandaríkjunum, hefđu allir Bandaríkjaforsetar í minnsta kosti heila öld veriđ í bullandi minnihluta og minnihluti kjósenda á kjörskrá hér á landi 1918 kosiđ međ Sambandslögunumm. 

Ţađ er enginn sem veit hvort sá sem situr heima sé á móti einhverju sem kosiđ er um. 

Sá sem situr heima tekur ekki afstöđu og lćtur ţá sem kjósa, velja fyrir sig. 

Ómar Ragnarsson, 10.8.2017 kl. 10:06

2 Smámynd: Anna Sigríđur Guđmundsdóttir

Eru bara 5 greinar í ţessari svokölluđu nýju "Stjórnarskrá Íslands"?

M.b.kv.

Anna Sigríđur Guđmundsdóttir, 10.8.2017 kl. 10:09

3 Smámynd: Halldór Jónsson

Ómar, ţađ er alltaf reiknađ hér út kjörsókn, sem er miklu meiri en í ţessum kosningum sem voru meira í ćtt viđ flugvallarskosninguna sem fólk hafđi ekki áhuga fyrir. Ţađ ţýđir nú ekkert ađ bera okkur saman viđ Bandaríkin ţar sem ađstćđur eru allt öđruvísi. Stjórnarskráin okkar 1944 var samţykkt međ yfirgnćfandi kjörsókn til dćmis og ţví berum viđ ţćr fyrir okkur.

Finnst ţér marktćk ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđsla ef mikill minnihluti greiđir atkvćđi? Er ţađ ţjóđarviljinn? Brexit, hvađ var stór hluti ţjóđarinnar sem kaus?

Anna ţađ er langt sínđan ađ ég lasa ţetta bull ţeirra. En ég man ađ hún var meira en hundrađ blađsíđur sem eitt og sér sýnir hvađa rugl er í gangi. Stjórnarskrá á ađ vera eins og sú bandaríska, einhverjar örfáar síđur eins og okkar núverandi enda er stjórnarskrá bara um grundvallaratriđi samfélagsins, ekki um smáatriđi eins og drögin sem Ómar og Ţorvaldur bjuggu til. Algerlega óhćf bara ţess vegna.

Halldór Jónsson, 10.8.2017 kl. 10:17

4 identicon

Ómar, ţađ er alţekkt ađ ţađ dragi úr gildi ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslna ef kosningaţátttaka er drćm. Nú á sér slík sú umrćđa um kosningar til stjórnlagaţings í Venezuela, sem alţjóđasamfélagiđ tekur ekkert mark á. Ţátttakan í kosningum um tillögur stjórnlagaráđs var sögulega léleg. Í stjórnarskrám vestrćnna ríkja er oft gerđ krafa um lágmarks ţátttöku í ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslum. Ef breyta á stjórnlögum ţá er ţađ varla ómálefnalegt ađ gera kröfu um ađ fleiri en 31% kosningabćrra manna samţykki slíkar breytingar.

Ágúst (IP-tala skráđ) 10.8.2017 kl. 10:18

5 Smámynd: Halldór Jónsson

 Bandaríksa stjórnarskráin er 4.599 orđ, 22 ţúsund slög., 7 vélritađa síđur gleiđletrađ á Calabri 9 .

(Preamble) 

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I (Article 1 - Legislative)

Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2

1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.2  The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed onefor every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolinafive, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3

1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof,3 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of thesecond Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.4

3: No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

6: The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

7: Judgment in Cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4

1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusingSenators.

2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,5 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5

1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with theConcurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire ofone fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6

1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.6 They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

2: No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7

1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

2: Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

3: Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8

1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, DutiesImposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all DutiesImposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2: To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

3: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

4: To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5: To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

6: To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

7: To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

8: To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

9: To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

10: To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

11: To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

12: To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

13: To provide and maintain a Navy;

14: To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

15: To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

16: To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

17: To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9

1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

2: The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

4: No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.7

5: No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

6: No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

7: No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

8: No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10

1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainderex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

3: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II (Article 2 - Executive)

Section 1

1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.8

4: The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

6: In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers andDuties of the said Office,9 the Same shall devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

7: The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any otherEmolument from the United States, or any of them.

8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2

1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III (Article 3 - Judicial)

Section 1

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2

1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;10 —between Citizens of different States, —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

2: In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellateJurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

3: The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3

1: Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

2: The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article IV (Article 4 - States' Relations)

Section 1

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2

1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

2: A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

3: No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.11

Section 3

1: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

2: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article V (Article 5 - Mode of Amendment)

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures ofthree fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI (Article 6 - Prior Debts, National Supremacy, Oaths of Office)

1: All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

3: The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII (Article 7 - Ratification)

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word "the", being interlined between the seventh and eight Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page. The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty thirdLines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

  


done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

Halldór Jónsson, 10.8.2017 kl. 10:51

6 Smámynd: Halldór Jónsson

Ţetta er ekki lengi lesiđ er ţađ?

Til viđbótar eru nokkrar breytingar sem hafa veriđ gerđar. En eins og sjá má ţá er ţetta einfalt og snýst ekki um smáatriđi hweldur ađalatriđi en ekki almennt kjaftćđi.

Halldór Jónsson, 10.8.2017 kl. 10:54

7 identicon

Međ ţví ađ mćta á kjörstađ tekur ţú afstöđu og hefur áhrif á mótun samfélagsin. Ţeir sem neyta ekki atkvćđisréttar sýna međ ţví áhugaleysi, ađ ţeim sé sama. Ţeir eru ekki ađ tjá sig međ ţví ađ tjá sig ekki. Ţannig virka atkvćđagređslur í lýđrćđisríkjum og enn eru menn ekki skyldugir til ađ mćta á kjörstađ. Auđvitađ mega menn velta ţví fyrir sér hver útkoman hefđi orđiđ, hefđu fleiri tekiđ ţátt. En ţá er nćrtakast ađ ganga út frá ţví ađ hún hefđi orđiđ svipuđ. Hvergi í heiminum eru eins oft ţjóđaratkvćđagreiđslur eins og í Sviss, ţar sem ég hef mitt lögheimi og er ríkisborgari, hef sem sagt kosningarétt. Ţrjátíu til fjörutíu % ţátttaka er normiđ, 40-50% er gott og yfir 50% er mjög gott. Aldrei fer af stađ umrćđa um ţađ ađ útkoman sé ómarktćk vegna lítillar ţátttöku. Slíkt yrđi flokkađ sem infantile, ef ekki heimskulegt.

Haukur Kristinsson (IP-tala skráđ) 10.8.2017 kl. 13:44

8 Smámynd: Halldór Jónsson

ţađ er allta annađ hjá ţjóđ sem býr viđ svissneskt kerfi sem er búiđ ađ vera svona lengi viđ lýđi.Viđ erum allsendis óvön slíku fyrirkomulagi. Hjá okkur ţýđir kosning kosning og ţá um meiriháttar mál. Mér skilst ađ svissarar séu ađ greiđa atkvćđi um allskyns hluti sem mörgum sé skítsama um eins og okkur sstjórnlagaráđs-og flugvallarkosning.

Hvađ eertu ađ skipta ţér af íslenskum málum og bloggi ef ţú ert ekki ríkisborgari. Af hverju ertu ekki bara ţar međ ţínar pokatillögur fyrir íslenska stjórnmálamenn?

Halldór Jónsson, 10.8.2017 kl. 15:41

9 identicon

Er einnig međ íslenskan ríkisborgararétt og ţví kosningarétt á Íslandi. Lögheimili mitt er hinsvegar í Sviss, ţótt ég eigi hús á Húsavík.

Haukur Kristinsson (IP-tala skráđ) 10.8.2017 kl. 17:19

10 Smámynd: Anna Sigríđur Guđmundsdóttir

Halldór. Mig minnir ađ skođanakönnunar"kosningin" um nýja "Stjórnarskrá Íslands" hafi innihaldiđ 5 greinar. En kannski er minniđ bara fariđ ađ svíkja mig.

Yfir 100 greinar voru ţađ alla vega ekki, sem svokölluđ stjórnarskrárkosning ţjóđarinnar snérist um fyrir nokkrum árum síđan.

Ţađ er ekki til neins ađ hafa kosningar um eitthvađ sem ekki er raunverulega rétt í framkvćmd og afgreiđslu. Niđurstađan ţarf nefnilega ađ vera marktćk.

Ţađ rýrir verulega trúverđugleika og lögmćti kosninga, ef svindl og blekkingar eru viđhafđar í kringum kosningar. Ekkert gott kemur út af slíku fyrir neinn, sama um hvađ er kosiđ.

M.b.kv.

Anna Sigríđur Guđmundsdóttir, 10.8.2017 kl. 22:44

Bćta viđ athugasemd

Hver er summan af ţremur og ţrettán?
Nota HTML-ham

Höfundur

Halldór Jónsson
Halldór Jónsson

verkfræðingur, flugdellukall, tennis-og badmintonspilari

-ekki góður í neinu af þessu-

Heimsóknir

Flettingar

  • Í dag (23.8.): 679
  • Sl. sólarhring: 838
  • Sl. viku: 6956
  • Frá upphafi: 1950041

Annađ

  • Innlit í dag: 564
  • Innlit sl. viku: 5730
  • Gestir í dag: 523
  • IP-tölur í dag: 497

Uppfćrt á 3 mín. fresti.
Skýringar

Eldri fćrslur

Innskráning

Ath. Vinsamlegast kveikiđ á Javascript til ađ hefja innskráningu.

Hafđu samband